国产在线精品亚洲一区二区三区

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    射線防護器材:不同的射線怎么維護?
    來源:http://www.inifakta.com 發布時間:2020-09-18

    射線防護器材之防護對象一:α射線 α粒子是能量較高氦-4的原子核。質量較大,帶2個正電荷,由于庫侖場作用以及彈性碰撞等原因,α粒子的能量往往被消耗于吸收其他物質,所以其照射的防護相對簡單,一張紙基本就能防住。但是其對近距離的人危害卻很大,α粒子內照射,短距離內會消耗全部的能量,因此對近距離受照射的細胞組織損傷十分厲害。
    The first object of radiation protection equipment is: α - ray alpha particle is the nucleus of helium-4 with high energy. Due to the Coulomb field effect and elastic collision, the energy of alpha particles is often consumed to absorb other substances. Therefore, the protection against radiation is relatively simple, and a piece of paper can basically prevent it. However, it does great harm to people in close range. Alpha particle internal irradiation will consume all the energy in a short distance, so it damages the cells and tissues exposed to short distance irradiation seriously.
    射線防護器材之防護對象二:β射線 β粒子實質是高速運動的電子束,帶有一個負電荷(對正電子是一個正電荷),質量為質子或中子的1/1837。β射線的穿透能力一般,介于α、γ射線之間。
    Protection object 2: beta ray beta particle is essentially a high-speed moving electron beam with a negative charge (a positive charge to a positron), with a mass of 1 / 1837 of a proton or neutron. The penetration ability of β - ray is between α - ray and γ - ray.
    由于β射線與原子量較大的物質作用時容易產生軔致輻射,所以對于活度較大的β放射源,一般首先會選擇有機玻璃等輕質材料進行防護,然后再選擇原子量較大的物質進行屏蔽。對β射線的防護既要考慮內照射,又要考慮外照射。
    Since bremsstrahlung is easy to be produced when β - ray interacts with substances with large atomic weight, for beta radiation sources with large activity, light materials such as plexiglass are generally selected for protection first, and then materials with larger atomic weight are selected for shielding. Both internal and external irradiation should be considered in the protection of β - ray.
    射線防護器材
    射線防護器材之防護對象三:γ射線γ射線實質是高能光子束,由于光子不帶電,且其靜止質量為0,所以不太容易損失能量。γ射線只有在與物質相互作用發生光電效應、康普頓散射、電子對湮滅三種效應時才會損耗能量。
    Protection object 3: gamma ray gamma ray is essentially a high-energy photon beam. Because the photon is not charged and its static mass is 0, it is not easy to lose energy. Only when the interaction between gamma ray and matter occurs photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and electron pair annihilation, will the energy be lost.
    γ射線的穿透能力較強,所以一般會選擇用原子序數較高的材料(如鉛、貧鈾、鎢)或厚度較大的混凝土、水等進行屏蔽。除此之外,能量越高的γ射線越難防護。對γ射線的防護主要考慮外照射因素,但由于其通常還會伴隨著α、β衰變的發生,所以內照射防護也不能忽視。
    Because of the strong penetration ability of gamma ray, materials with higher atomic number (such as lead, depleted uranium, tungsten) or concrete and water with large thickness are generally selected for shielding. In addition, the higher the energy, the more difficult it is to protect. The protection of gamma ray mainly considers the external radiation factor, but because it is usually accompanied by α, β decay, so the internal radiation protection can not be ignored.

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